Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Citation Help and Annotated Bibliographies

This guide is to provide information on citation and annotated bibliographies, with basic information on the landing page and more specialized information on appended pages.

Annotated Bibliographies

What is an annotated bibliography?

An annotated bibliography is a bibliography (works cited) with an additional description (i.e., annotation) of each source that includes a summary, assessment, and reflection of the source. The purpose of the annotation is to help the reader evaluate whether the work cited is relevant to a specific research topic or line of inquiry.

In the resources below, you'll find information about annotated bibliographies including what they are, why they're used, characteristics and anatomy, citation styles, and examples.

Elements of an Annotation

What elements might an annotation include?

  1. Bibliography according to the appropriate citation style (MLA, APA, CBE/CSE, etc.).
  2. Explanation of main points and/or purpose of the work—basically, its thesis—which shows among other things that you have read and thoroughly understand the source.
  3. Verification or critique of the authority or qualifications of the author.
  4. Comments on the worth, effectiveness, and usefulness of the work in terms of both the topic being researched and/or your own research project.
  5. The point of view or perspective from which the work was written. For instance, you may note whether the author seemed to have particular biases or was trying to reach a particular audience.
  6. Relevant links to other work done in the area, like related sources, possibly including a comparison with some of those already on your list. You may want to establish connections to other aspects of the same argument or opposing views.

The first four elements above are usually a necessary part of the annotated bibliography. Points 5 and 6 may involve a little more analysis of the source, but you may include them in other kinds of annotations besides evaluative ones. 

Credit: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 License.

Sample MLA Annotation

Sample MLA Annotation from Purdue Owl:

Lamott, Anne. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life. Anchor Books, 1995.

Lamott's book offers honest advice on the nature of a writing life, complete with its insecurities and failures. Taking a humorous approach to the realities of being a writer, the chapters in Lamott's book are wry and anecdotal and offer advice on everything from plot development to jealousy, from perfectionism to struggling with one's own internal critic.

In the process, Lamott includes writing exercises designed to be both productive and fun. Lamott offers sane advice for those struggling with the anxieties of writing, but her main project seems to be offering the reader a reality check regarding writing, publishing, and struggling with one's own imperfect humanity in the process. Rather than a practical handbook to producing and/or publishing, this text is indispensable because of its honest perspective, its down-to-earth humor, and its encouraging approach.

Chapters in this text could easily be included in the curriculum for a writing class. Several of the chapters in Part 1 address the writing process and would serve to generate discussion on students' own drafting and revising processes. Some of the writing exercises would also be appropriate for generating classroom writing exercises. Students should find Lamott's style both engaging and enjoyable.


In the sample annotation above, the writer includes three paragraphs: a summary, an evaluation of the text, and a reflection on its applicability to his/her own research, respectively.

College Librarian and Specialist Help