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Psychology and Child Development

APA Help Links

Click on this link to see some examples of the APA citation style.

APA Style

Copies of the APA manual are available at the Research Help Desk (Kennedy, 2nd floor) and on Permanent Reserves at the Circulation Desk:

  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association  (BF 76.7 P83 2010

APA Examples of In-Text Citations

APA format requires that you document your use of sources throughout your work using in-text citations. Some examples (from the APA manual) include:

Walker (2000) compared reaction times

In a recent study of reaction times (Walker, 2000)

It was found that reaction times "quotation here" (Walker, 2000, p. 320)

For some online resources, you will not have page numbers available to you. Instead, quote the paragraph number.  For example:

Calkins concludes that "the top priority to aid ecological design must be generation of detailed, unbiased research on economic and environmental costs, and performance over the entire life-cycle of strategies" (2005, Conclusion section, para. 3).

APA Examples for References List

Following are sample citations to a variety of sources as they should appear in a References list at the end of your paper.  If a source you have differs from the examples, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 

The APA manual explicitly states that entries for a References list should be double-spaced (APA Manual 6th. ed., p. 37), but the entries here are single-spaced so you don't have to scroll forever.  Also pay close attention to italics, parentheses and spacing.  Note too, the hanging indent for each entry – that is, all lines after the first in each entry are indented.


Entire Book, Print Version (APA 6th ed., p. 203)

Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. London, England: Taylor & Francis.

Electronic Version of Print Book (APA 6th ed., p. 203)

Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. [DX Reader  version]. Retrieved from

Electronic-Only-Book (APA 6th ed., p. 203)

O’Keefe, E. (n.d.) Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from

Electronic Version of Republished Book (APA 6th ed., p. 203)

Freud, S. (1953). The method of interpreting dreams: An analysis of a specimen dream. In J. Strachey (Ed. & Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of  Sigmund Freud (Vol. 4, 96-121). Retrieved from (Original work published 1900)

Book Chapter, Print Version (APA 6th ed., p. 204)

Haybron, D. M. (2008).  Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Journal Article, Print Version (APA 6th ed., p. 199)

Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1),73-82.

Electronic Journal Article with DOI *(APA 6th ed., p. 198)

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi: 10.1037/0278= 6133.24.2.225

Electronic Journal Article without DOI (APA 6th ed., p. 199)

Sillik, T.J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between   perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-journal of Applied Psychology  2(2),  38- 48. Retrieved from

Print Magazine Article (APA 6th ed., p. 200)

Chamberlin, J., Novotney, A., Packard, E., & Price, M. (2008, May). Enhancing worker well being: Occupational health psychologists convene to share their research on work, stress, and health. Monitor on Psychology, 39(5), 26-29.

Online Magazine Article (APA 6th ed., p. 200)

Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). Retrieved from

Print Newspaper Article (APA 6th ed., p. 200)

Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status.  The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.

Online Newspaper Article (APA 6th ed., p. 200)

Brody, J. E (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times.      Retrieved from

Senior Project (APA 5th ed., pp. 260-262)

Garcia, H. (2001). To be and not to be: Quantum politics in the new millennium. Unpublished senior project, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo.


*What is a DOI?  It is a unique digital object identifier.  The 2010 APA Manual States:

“Provide the DOI, if one has been assigned to the content.  Publishers who follow best practices publish the DOI prominently on the first page of the article …   When a DOI is used, no further retrieval information is needed to identify or locate the content.  If no DOI has been assigned … provide the home page URL of the journal or of the book or report publisher.  If you are accessing the article from a private database, you may need to do a quick web search to locate the URL” (APA 6th ed., 191-192).