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Research 101: A Self-Guided Tutorial

Research Smarter

5 - In-Text Citations

What About the Citations in My Paper?

Throughout this section, sources have been discussed as they would be cited in your works cited, references list, or bibliography.

There are two parts to every citation:

  1. The notation in the text of the paper itself which alerts the reader to source you are citing. This can be an in-text citation (for example, Jones, 1998) or a number corresponding to an endnote or footnote.
  2. The full citation as listed in your works cited, references list, or bibliography.

Every citation style does this differently, so check if you are unsure.

Graph of examples of in-text and bibliography ciations in MLA, APA, Chicago, and CSE Format. Refer to the links below to go to the websites from which these examples were taken.

Examples excerpted from the Purdue OWL MLA (, Purdue OWL APA (, Purdue OWL Chicago (, and Washington State University CSE Citation Quick Guide (